MSME Development Institute, Ranchi

Ministry of MSME, Govt. of India

Schemes

Upcoming Events :

National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme (NMCP)

NMCP Schemes: Genesis

The Government has announced formulation of National Competitiveness Programme in 2005 with an objective to support the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in their Endeavour to become competitive and adjust the competitive pressure caused by liberalization and moderation of tariff rates. Para 59 of the Budget Speech 2005 says as follows:-

”Worldwide, it is manufacturing that has driven growth. In order to revive the manufacturing sector, particularly small and medium enterprises, and to enable them to adjust to the competitive pressures caused by liberalization and moderation of tariff rates, I propose to launch a new scheme that will help them strengthen their operations and sharpen their competitiveness. The scheme will be called as “Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme”. The design of the scheme will be worked out by the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) in consultation with the industry”.

Accordingly, the NMCC along with relevant stakeholders like the Ministry of MSME has conceptualized and finalized the components of the programme incorporating suitable inputs from the stakeholders in a meeting taken by Chairman, NMCC on 7.12.2005. The NMCP, as conceptualized by the NMCC was accepted by the Government and announced for implementation in the Budget 2006-07, para 68 of which states as under:-

“The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has finalized a five-year National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme. Ten schemes have been drawn up including schemes for promotion of ICT, mini tool room, design clinics and marketing support for SMEs. Implementation will be in the PPP model, and financing will be tied up during the course of the next year”. The details of the operational schemes are as given in the following pages:

Marketing Assistance and Technology Upgradation (MATU) to MSMEs:

Marketing is key to the success of any enterprise and it is more relevant in regard to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). This sector is characterized by absence of strong brand presence in the market and also largely unorganized marketing network unlike large enterprises. Due to resource limitations, the access to foreign market is not commensurate to their potentials. This Office is implementing various schemes, which aim to provide a better competitive edge to the product of MSME sector in the market. Following are the components of the scheme:

Participation of manufacturing MSEs in Domestic Trade Fairs/Exhibitions:

To encourage manufacturing Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in their efforts of tapping and developing domestic markets. Registered MSEs are facilitated to participate in selected Domestic Trade fairs at 80 % Subsidy for general category and 100% for SC/ST/Women/NER/PH for space rent (Maximum upto Rs 20000).Similarly 100% of contingency expenditure (Includes travel, publicity and freight) will be reimbursed for the fair.(Maximum upto Rs 10000)

Participation of manufacturing MSEs in International Trade Fairs/Exhibitions:

To encourage manufacturing Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in their efforts of tapping and developing overseas markets. Registered MSEs are facilitated to participate in selected International Trade fairs at 80 % for general category and 100% for SC/ST/Women/NER/PH for space rent (Maximum upto Rs 100000 for International Trade Fair). Similarly 100% of contingency expenditure (Includes travel, publicity and freight) will be reimbursed for the fair.(Maximum upto 1.25 Lakhs)

International/National Workshops on marketing/ Public Procurement/Packaging etc. for MSMEs:

International/National Workshops/Seminars on Marketing/Packaging will be organized for promotion of new marketing techniques, emerging global marketing/product innovation trends in various product and services verticals, development in packaging, reviewing public procurements with Central Ministries/Departments/Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSUs) under Public Procurement Policy for MSEs Order 2012 and topics relevant to MSME sector. The quantum of assistance would be as under:

SL No. Item Scale of Assistance
1 National Workshop/Seminar

Rs. 2.5 Lakh per workshop/seminar anywhere in the country (or actual whichever is lower).

2 International  workshop/Seminar

Rs. 2.5 Lakh per workshop/seminar anywhere in workshop/ the country with an additional cost of Rs. 2.5 Lakh Seminar (maximum) towards cost of air travel, boarding & lodging etc. for international experts (or actual whichever is lower) subject to condition that international workshop/seminar should not be held in any five star hotel.

Vendor Development Programme for MSMEs:

A Vendor Development Programme provides a common platform for buyer and sellers including displaying the products and service of MSMEs and requirements of Large Scale buyer organisations. The significance of Vendor Development Programmes has increased manifold in view of the Public Procurement Policy for MSEs Order 2012.

State level Vendor Development Programme

These programmes will primarily focus Vendor-Vendee match making between MSMEs and CPSUs located in the State & other procuring agencies. The discussion on Public Procurement Policy for MSEs Order-2012 will also part of these programmes. The duration of these programmes will be one day. The funds for organizing these programme will be Rs. 30,000/- per programme.

National Level Vendor Development Programme:

These programmes will focus on organizing Industrial Exhibition cum Buyer Seller Meet with an objective of providing opportunity for MSME to display their products and competencies where as Large buyer to display their product/services requirements. The participants will be nationwide. The workshop on Public Procurement Policy for MSEs Order 2012, will be the part of the programme. Seminar/discussion/workshop on various schemes for MSME Sector would also be the part of the programme. The duration of programme will be 2-3 days.

Reimbursement for obtaining Bar Code by MSEs:

Bar codes are the series of black lines and white spaces printed on product packages or attached as tags on consumer products. Information on a product or a consignment like its item code or serial number, expiry date, consignor/consignee etc., can be represented through such bar codes.

When these bar codes are scanned using a scanner, it enables instantaneous data capture with 100% accuracy and at great speeds.

Bar Coding can have a significant impact on the success of any enterprise/ company and organisation.

Timely and accurate capture of product information and its communication electronically across the Supply Chain ahead of physical product flow is critical to lowering inventory costs, in accurate sales forecasting & dynamic production scheduling and in product track and trace.

Bar Coding not only facilitates the exchange of information between buyers and sellers, but also provides the potential for better visibility and sharing of information across an entire Supply Chain. Other benefits are :

  1. (i) Automated data capture with 100% accuracy,
  2. (ii) Real time stock management of raw materials and finished goods
  3. (iii) Fast and error free data recording on product/ consignment movement
  4. (iv) Easy integration with existing software, if any
  5. (v) In compliance with growing requirements of leading national markets
  6. (vi) In line with requirements of international retailers &
  7. (vii) Also gives international look and feel.

GS1 India, an autonomous body under Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India is a solution provider for registration for use of Bar Coding. To become a subscriber of GS1 India, all one has to do is fill up the registration form and make the necessary payments as registration fee. Details about registration with GS1 India for use of Bar Coding are available on their website www.gs1india. org

Subsidy from Govt of India:

Office of Development Commissioner (MSME), Ministry of MSME, provides the financial assistance for reimbursement of 75% of one-time registration fee (Under SSI-MDA Scheme) w.e.f. 1st January, 2002 and 75% of annual recurring fee for first three years (Under NMCP Scheme) w.e.f. 1st June,2007 paid by MSEs to GS1 India for using of Bar Code.

Any other charges like service taxes, etc. are not reimbursable. Eligible MSEs may apply to the Director, Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises

Development Institute, Ranchi in prescribed application form for claiming reimbursement on Bar Code. Application Form along with formats for the supporting documents may be collected from office Website www.dcmsme.gov.in.

Support for Entrepreneurial and Managerial Development of SMEs through Incubators :

The Scheme provides early stage funding for nurturing innovative business ideas(new indigenous technology, processes, products, procedure etc.) which could be commercialized in a year. The main objective is to promote development of knowledge-based innovative ventures and to improve the competitiveness and survival instincts of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). Such entrepreneurial innovative ideas are sought to be developed in reputed Technical Management institutions before these can become commercially viable and attract venture capital.

Every BI is expected to help the incubation of about 10 new ideas or units. For this service, which includes the provision of laboratory/ workshop facilities and other assistance/guidance to young innovators, each BI will be given between Rs.4 lakh and Rs.8 lakh per idea/unit nurtured by them, limited to a total of Rs.62.5 lakh for the ten ideas. In addition, each BI or each Host Institution may get:

A Upgradation of infrastructure Rs. 2.50 lakh
B Orientation/Training Rs. 1.28 lakh
C Administrative Expenses Rs. 0.22 lakh.

Thus the total assistance per BI -     Rs. 66.50 lakhs

Each BI will be given between Rs.4 lakh and Rs.8 lakh per idea/unit

ZED Certification Scheme:

The scheme is an extensive drive to create proper awareness in MSMEs about ZED manufacturing and motivate them for assessment of their enterprise for ZED and support them. After ZED assessment, MSMEs can reduce wastages substantially, increase productivity, expand their market as IOPs, become vendors to CPSUs, have more IPRs, develop new products and processes etc.The ZED scheme is an integrated and holistic certification system that will account for quality, productivity, energy efficiency, pollution mitigation, financial status, human resource and technological depth including design and IPR in both products and processes. Fee structure and subsidy is given below:

SL. No. Total Cost
(Component Wise)
Cost to MSMEs According to size (in Rs)
Micro Small Medium
1
2
Registration & Online
Self - Assessment
No Cost No Cost No Cost
3 Desktop Assessment
Rs. 10,000/-
2000/- 4000/- 5000/-
4 Site Assessment
Rs. 80,000/-
16,000/- 32,000/- 40,000/-
  Additional Defence Rating
Rs. 40,000/-
8,000/- 16,000/- 32,000/-
5
6
Gap Analysis & Handholding (optional)
Rs. 1,90,000/-
38,000/- 76,000/- 95,000/-
  Re- Assessment / Re-Rating
Rs. 40,000/-
8,000/- 16,000/- 20,000/-

For more information visit: www.zed.org.in

Building Awareness on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) for MSME

The objective of the scheme is to enhance awareness of MSME about Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) to take measure for the protecting their ideas and business strategies. Effective utilization of IPR tools by MSMEs would also assist them in technology up gradation and enhancing competitiveness.

SALIENT FEATURES
SL. No. Activity Maximum grant per application / proposal (Rs. in lakh)
A Awareness/ Sensitisation Programmes on IPR. 1.00
B Pilot Studies for Selected Clusters/ Groups of Industry 2.50
C Interactive Seminars / Workshops. 2.00
D Specialized Training. (i) Short term (ST)
(ii) Long term (LT)
(i) ST - 6.00
(ii) LT -45.00
E Assistance for Grant on Patent/ GI Registration
(i) Domestic Patent
(ii) Foreign Patent
(iii) GI Registration

(i) 0.25
(ii) 2.00
(iii) 1.00
F Setting up of ‘IP Facilitation Centre for MSME 65.00
G Interaction with International Agencies
(i) Domestic Intervention
(ii) International Exchange Programme

(i) 5.00
(ii) 7.50

These initiatives are proposed to be developed through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) mode to encourage economically sustainable models for overall development of MSMEs. Under this programme financial assistance is being provided for taking up the identified initiatives.

Eligible applicants/beneficiaries will have to contribute minimum 10% of the GOI financial support for availing assistance under the scheme. More details are available on www.dcmsme.gov.in

Lean Manufacturing Competitiveness Scheme (LMCS) for Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)

The main objective of the Lean Manufacturing Competitiveness Scheme (LMCS) is to bring the manufacturing competitiveness in the MSME Sector. Lean Manufacturing involves applying Lean Techniques (e.g. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), 5S, Visual control, Standard Operation Procedures, Just in Time, Kanban System, Cellular Layout, Poka Yoke, TPM, etc.) to identify and eliminate waste and streamline a system. The focus is on making the entire process flow, not improving only a few operations. Worker empowerment is also emphasized throughout the effort Under the Scheme, MSMEs will be assisted in reducing their manufacturing costs, through proper personnel management, better space utilization, scientific inventory management, improved processed flows, reduced engineering time and so on. LMCS also brings improvement in the quality of products and lowers costs, which are essential for competing in national and international markets. The larger enterprises in India have been adopting LMCS to remain competitive, but MSMEs have generally stayed away from such Programmes as they are not fully aware of the benefits. Besides, experienced and effective Lean Manufacturing Counsellors or Consultants are not easily available and are expensive to engage and hence most MSMEs are unable to afford LMCS.

Scheme has been approved as a pilot project in 100 Mini Clusters for implemen tations of Lean Techniques.

The approach involves engagement of Lean Manufacturing Consultants (LMCs) to assess the existing manufacturing system of member units of the Mini Cluster(s) and stipulate detailed step by step procedures and schedules for implementing and achieving of lean techniques.

A Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) will be formed in each cluster. It is expected that once MSMEs are introduced to the benefits and savings that accrue from LM techniques, they would themselves continue the Scheme from the second year onwards at their own expense. A three tier implementing structure is in place with a group of 10 or so MSMEs (SPV) at the lowest local-tier and a Lean Manufacturing Screening and Steering Committee (SSC) under DC(MSME) at the highest tier The intermediate tier, National Monitoring and Implementing Unit (NMIU) is responsible for facilitating implementation and monitoring of the Scheme. For the Pilot phase of 100 Mini Clusters, it is envisaged that NPC (National Productivity Council) function as NMIU.

A financial support by the Government of India upto a maximum of 80% of the Consultant fees (maximum 36 lakhs for 18 months) for each Mini Cluster will be provided. Remaining 20% is to be borne by the beneficiaries MSME units.

Design Clinics Scheme for design expertise to Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) manufacturing sector

The main objective of the Design Clinic is to bring the MSME sector and design expertise into a common platform, to provide expert advice and solutions on real time design problems, resulting in continuous improvement and value addition for existing products. It also aims at value added cost effective solutions. These Design Clinics in clusters of the country are to usher in a continuous competitive advantage to the MSMEs

Design Clinic is a tested strategic model of design intervention, where a solution to an existing design problem is diagnosed and remedial steps suggested by a multi-disciplinary team of design experts. In this scheme, the value additions to an idea or a concept are imparted through interaction at a lesser cost to a specific industry/sector. It applies to a sector that requires intervention, like manufacturing etc, as the existing conventional models of design consultancy and training are not viable. These models bring design exposure to the door -step of industry clusters for design improvement, evaluation, analysis and adopting even long-term consultancy/design related intervention.

The broad activities planned under the scheme include creation of Design Clinics Centre along with four regional centres for intervention on the design needs of the MSME Sector. Further these centres will have linkages with engineering, management, design institutes of the country. The scheme is under operation in a Public Private Partnership (PPP) Mode. For present status logon to http://designclinicsmsme.org.

A Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) will be formed in each cluster. It is expected that once MSMEs are introduced to the benefits and savings that accrue from LM techniques, they would themselves continue the Scheme from the second year onwards at their own expense. A three tier implementing structure is in place with a group of 10 or so MSMEs (SPV) at the lowest local-tier and a Lean Manufacturing Screening and Steering Committee (SSC) under DC(MSME) at the highest tier The intermediate tier, National Monitoring and Implementing Unit (NMIU) is responsible for facilitating implementation and monitoring of the Scheme. For the Pilot phase of 100 Mini Clusters, it is envisaged that NPC (National Productivity Council) function as NMIU.

A financial support by the Government of India upto a maximum of 80% of the Consultant fees (maximum 36 lakhs for 18 months) for each Mini Cluster will be provided. Remaining 20% is to be borne by the beneficiaries MSME units.

Technology and Quality Upgradation Support to MSMEs (TEQUP)

The objective of the Scheme is to sensitize the manufacturing (MSME) sector in India to upgrade their technologies, usage of energy efficient technologies to reduce emissions of Green House Gases, adoption of other technologies mandated as per the global standards, improve their quality and reduce cost of production etc. towards becoming globally competitive.

Components of the Scheme:
  1. (i) Capacity Building of MSME Clusters for Energy Efficiency/Clean Development Interventions and other technologies mandated as per the global standards
  2. (ii) Implementation of Energy Efficient Technologies in MSME sector
  3. (iii) Setting up of Carbon credit aggregation centres for introducing and popularising clean development mechanism in MSME clusters
  4. (iv) Encouraging MSMEs to acquire product certification licences from National/International bodies and adopt other technologies mandated as per the global standards
Important deliverables under the scheme are:
  1. i) Create awareness about Energy efficient and environment friendly technologies in at least 60 MSME Clusters.
  2. (ii) Introduce Energy Efficient technologies in 390 MSMEs
  3. (iii) Introduce clean development mechanism (CDM) in at least 16 MSME Clusters
  4. (iv) Support product certification to National/International Standards, including Energy Efficiency and Safety Standards in at least 4000 MSMEs etc.

The Scheme is targeted to achieve at least 15% reduction in consumption of conventional fuels in the identified Energy Intensive Clusters leading to reduction of carbon Footprints and enhancing environmental sustenance.

Promotion of Information & Communication Technology (ICT) in Indian MSME Sector

The objective of this programme envisages that some of those clusters of MSMEs, which has quality production and export potential, shall be identified & encouraged and assisted in adopting ICT application to achieve competitiveness in National & International markets. The total GOI contribution during 11th Plan is stipulated as Rs 160 crore (approximately) for the scheme

Activities:

The broad activities planned under the scheme include, identifying target cluster for ICT intervention, setting up of E-readiness infrastructure, developing web portals for clusters, skill development of MSME staff in ICT application, preparation of local software solution for MSMEs to enhance their competitiveness, construction of e- catalogue, e-commerce etc. and networking MSME cluster portal on to National level Portal in order to outreach MSMEs into global markets.

Deliverables:
  1. ›   200 potential cluster across the country will reap the benefit from the scheme.
  2. ›   Forward and back ward integration.
  3. ›   Reduction in inventory level
  4. ›   Increased value addition in the product.
  5. ›   Increased in indirect labour productivity
  6. ›   Improved Competitiveness.
  7. ›   Enhanced market share in domestic & export market

The Scheme is targeted to achieve at least 15% reduction in consumption of conventional fuels in the identified Energy Intensive Clusters leading to reduction of carbon Footprints and enhancing environmental sustenance.

Cluster Development Programme

The Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME), Government of India (GoI) has adopted the cluster development approach as a key strategy for enhancing the productivity and competitiveness as well as capacity building of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) and their collectives in the country. Clustering of units also enables providers of various services to them, including banks and credit agencies, to provide their services more economically, thus reducing costs and improving the availability of services for these enterprises.

Objectives of the Scheme:
  1. (i) To support the sustainability and growth of MSEs by addressing common issues such as improvement of technology, skills and quality, market access, access to capital, etc
  2. (ii) To build capacity of MSEs for common supportive action through formation of self help groups, consortia, upgradation of associations, etc.
  3. (iii) To create/upgrade infrastructural facilities in the new/existing industrial areas/ clusters of MSEs.
  4. (iv) To set up Common Facility Centres (for testing, training centre, raw material depot, effluent treatment, complementing production processes, etc).

More>> (http://www.dcmsme.gov.in/MSE-CDProg.htm)

visit: http://cluster.dcmsme.gov.in

Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme for Technology Upgradation (CLCSS) :

for individual MSEs) This scheme aims at facilitating Technology Upgradation of Micro and Small Enterprises by providing 15% capital subsidy on institutional finance availed by them for induction of well established and improved technology in approved sub-sectors/products. The admissible capital subsidy is calculated with reference to purchase price of Plant and Machinery. Maximum limit of eligible loan for calculation of subsidy under the revised scheme is Rs. 100 lakh w.e.f. 29-09.2005.

More>> (http://www.dcmsme.gov.in/schemes/Credit_link_Scheme.htm)

Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for MSEs :

(for individual MSEs) The Credit Guarantee Fund Scheme for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGS) was launched by the Government of India (GoI) to make available collateral-free credit to the micro and small enterprise sector. Both the existing and the new enterprises are eligible to be covered under the scheme. The Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, GoI and Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), established a Trust named Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE) to implement the Credit Guarantee Fund Scheme for Micro and Small Enterprises. Salient points of the scheme are depicted in the table given below:

Category Maximum extent of Guarantee where credit facility is
  Upto 5 lakh Above 5 Lakh upto 50Lakh Above 50 Lakh and upto 200 lakh
Micro Enterprises 85 % of the amount in default subject to a maximum of 4.25 lakh 75 % of the amount in default subject to a maximum of 37.50 lakh 50% of amount in default subject to a maximum of 100 lakh
Women Entrepreneur’s/ Units located in North East Region (Including Sikkim)( other than credit facility upto 5 lakh to micro enterprises) 80% of the amount in default subject to a maximum of 40 lakh
All other Category of borrowers 75% of the amount in default subject to a maximum of 37.50 lakh

For More Details visit www.cgtmse.in

National Awards:

(for individual MSEs) MSMEDI recommends outstanding MSEs for National Awards in the following categories: 1. Outstanding Entrepreneurship for Manufacturing/Service. 2. Product/Process Innovation. 3. Lean Manufacturing Techniques. 4. Quality products in Micro & Small Enterprises for selected products. Special recognition awards are also given in the above categories. Best Women entrepreneur and Best SC/ST entrepreneur are also given.

PUBLIC PROCUREMENT POLICY FOR MSEs :

◊    OBJECTIVE

• To increase participation of MSEs in Govt. procurement.

◊    SALIENT FEATURES
  • It is mandatory for every Central Ministry/ Department / PSU to procure a minimum 20% of the Total Annual Purchases of Products or Services produced / rendered by MSEs.
  • A sub-target of 4%(i.e.20% out of 20%) earmarked for procurement from MSEs owned by SC/ST entrepreneurs.
  • In the event of failure of such MSEs to participate in Tender Process/meet the Tender Requirement, 4% sub-target will be given to other MSEs.
  • Participating MSEs in tender quoting price within the band of L1+15% may also be allowed to supply a portion of the requirement (20% of the total tendered value) by bringing down their price to L1 price (in a situation where L1 price is from someone other than an MSE).
  • A sub-target of 4%(i.e.20% out of 20%) earmarked for procurement from MSEs owned by SC/ST entrepreneurs.

In case of more than one such MSE, the supply will be shared equally.

  • Procurement for 358 reserved items will remain continue to procure from MSEs which have been reserved for exclusive purchase from them.
  • A committee has been set up under chairmanship of Secretary(MSME),to review the list of reserved items and for monitoring& review of Policy

More>> (http://dcmsme.gov.in/pppm.htm)

Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD) Scheme for Women

Women have been among the most disadvantaged and oppressed sections of our country with regard to access to and control over resources. Problems faced by them and particularly for those who are illiterate and semi-illiterate both in rural and urban areas continue to be grave. In order to alleviate their problems, Govt. of India had launched a scheme titled "Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD) "during the 9th plan period. The scheme envisaged economic empowerment exclusively of women through trade related training, information and counseling extension activities related to trades, products, services etc. The Scheme has provided for financial loans through NGOs who were also provided GoI grant for capacity building. This Assistance was to be provided for self-employment ventures by women for pursuing any kind of non-farm activity

There is a provision for Government of India Grant up to 30% of the loan/ credit maximum up to Rs. 30.00 lakh as appraised by lending institution/ banks. The lending institutions/ banks would finance loan assistance for women through NGO for undertaking non-farm activities , who usually have no easy access to credit from banks due to cumbersome procedures and because of their inability to provide adequate security demanded by banks in the form of collaterals. GOI Grant and the loan portion from the lending agencies to assist such women shall be routed through NGOs engaged in assisting poor women through income generating activities. Only those NGOs, who are having considerable experience ( minimum 3 years) in taking and managing funds, taken either as loan or grant, shall be eligible under the Scheme. While the loan amount will be passed on to women beneficiaries, the Grant shall be utilized by the NGOs for activities accepted as grant activities in the appraisal report of the lending agency and capacity building of the NGOs. NGOs will be free to approach lending agencies of their choice, but such lending agencies are to be approved by the respective State/UT Governments and finally by the Office of the DC (MSME). The Government Grant portion would be finally approved by the Steering Committee, after taking into account the appraisal of the Project Costs by lending agency (ies) and, their in principle acceptance to grant the loan component and GoI grant component. The NGO which has been selected for Government Grant will not be considered for GoI grant again in the subsequent two years from the date of release of GoI grant

More>> (http://www.dcmsme.gov.in/schemes/sidoscheme.htm)